1869: Johannes Friedrich Miescher (1844 – 1895) was the first researcher to isolate and identify nucleic acid.
1878: Albrecht Kossel (1853 – 1927) determined the chemical composition of nucleic acids.
1919: Phoebus Levene (1869 – 1940) characterized the different forms of nucleic acid, DNA from RNA and identified the base, sugar and phosphate nucleotide unit.
1927: Nikolai Koltsov (1872 - 1940) first to suggest the double helix idea.
1928: Frederick Griffith (1879–1941): discovered that DNA carried hereditary information.
1937: William Thomas Astbury (1898 - 1961) produced the first X-ray diffraction patterns that showed that DNA had a regular structure.
1943: Oswald Avery (1877 - 1955) & Colin MacLeod (1909 -1972) & Maclyn McCarty (1911 – 2005): discovered that DNA is the “transforming factor” and that genes are made of DNA.
1952: Rosalind Franklin (1920 – 1958): takes the first x-ray structure pictures of DNA crystals which are the basis for the DNA double-helix model of Watson and Crick.
1952: Alfred Hershey (1908 - 1997) and Martha Chase (1927 - 2003) showed in the Hershey–Chase experiment that DNA is the genetic material of T2 phage virus.
1953: James D. Watson (1928 - ), Francis Crick (1916 – 2004) and Maurice Wilkins (1916 – 2004): discovery of the double helical structure of DNA .
1955: George Emil Palade (1912 - 2008), Romanian cell biologist: discovered the first ribosome (translates coded information, received from mRNA via DNA, into proteins).
1958: Matthew Meselson (1930 - ) and Franklin William Stahl (1929 - ): final confirmation of the replication mechanism that was implied by the double-helical structure through the Meselson–Stahl experiment - supported the hypothesis that DNA replication was semiconservative which means that when the double stranded DNA helix was replicated, each of the two double stranded DNA helices consisted of one strand coming from the original helix and one newly synthesized.
1960s: Har Gobind Khorana (1922 – 2011), Robert W. Holley (1922 – 1993) and Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927 – 2010) deciphered the genetic code.
1960s: Sydney Brenner (1927 - ): proposed the concept of a messenger RNA (mRNA) (carries coded information from DNA to ribosomes that read this information and use it for protein synthesis what is called translation).
1998: Andrew Z. Fire (1959 -) and Craig C. Mello (1960 - ) discovered the role of RNA interference (RNAi) in the silencing of gene expression.
Famous and Notable Geneticists
DNA for Kids
DNA for Kids
DNA video for kids
What Is a Gene?
DNA - BBC, Norfolk Kids
Basics for Beginners
Tour of the Basics
What is DNA? - Genetics Home Reference
Basic Biology of DNA
The Basics of DNA
DNA, genes and chromosomes - BBC
DNA Workshop - PBS
What Are Genes, DNA and Chromosomes?
AncestryDNA - Frequently Asked Questions
Cells and DNA
Genome Frequently Asked Questions
General DNA Resources
James Watson's and Francis Crick's seminal article (April 25, 1953) - the first publication which described the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA: Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, Nature, 171st volume, pp. 737–738.
How to Crack the Code - Nobel Foundation
Journey into DNA - PBS
DNA for the Beginning
DNA - What It Is and How It Works
DNA Workshop - PBS
DNA - Wikipedia
DNA - The Double Helix
Unlinked DNA under electron microscope
Rosalind Franklin's contributions to the study of DNA
Clue to Chemistry of Heredity Found - The New York Times, 1953.
Glossaries and Dictionaries
Glossary of Genetics and DNA Terms
DNA Timeline - Santa Monica College
DNA Science from Mendel to Today
DNA Geneology Timeline
Timeline of the History of Genetics
Putting DNA to Work - Koshland Science Museum
DNA Kit and Science Museum Activities - genome.gov
DNA Discovery Center - The Field Museum
Biology and Genetics on Stamps
Heredity and the Genetic Code - Sci-Philately, Buffalo University
Philately and DNA
Philately and Genetics
Humor & Trivia
DNA / RNA Protein Synthesis Online Quiz
100 Facts About DNA
Science Fair Projects
DNA / RNA
DNA (Interdisciplinary Topic)
Griffith's and Avery, MacLeod and McCarty's DNA Experiments
Human Genome Project
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